As we all know that ulcers are wounds that are formed in different parts of the body. Diabetic Foot ulcers are injury or wounds that affect all the layers of the skin. Gangrene or necrosis is formed on the soles of the feet. Gangrene is nothing but any decay that takes place in any part of the body where there is no blood being supplied at all due to an injury or illness. This illness is seen in patients with diabetes mellitus due to peripheral neuropathy or peripheral artery disease. These ulcers are formed when the already existing diabetes is poorly taken care of that results in breaking down of skin tissues to expose layers beneath. They are mostly seen under your toes and the balls of your feet and it can spread to the whole feet.
What Are The Causes And Pathogenesis Of Diabetes Foot Ulcers?
All the people having diabetes can indeed have foot ulcers and foot pain. You need not worry if you are someone who takes good care of your feet. The treatment for ulcers varies depending upon the cause of the disease. Do make sure to consult a doctor if you have a diabetic ulcer or if you think you have it. Do not neglect to see a doctor because a seriously infected foot ulcer will be forced to amputation.
Diabetic ulcers are usually formed due to the following causes.
Poor blood circulation: Causing the blood to be transported poorly is due to vascular disease where the blood does not reach the feet consistently. This poor circulation to the feet makes it very difficult for the ulcer wounds to heal. This situation is a serious issue and must avoid anything that will lead you to this stage.
Higher blood sugar level(Hyperglycemia): If your ulcers take a lot of time, then it’s because of a high glucose level in your blood that prevents the healing process. This makes the blood sugar control in a critical stage. People suffering from type 2 diabetes will go through a hard time dealing with infections from ulcers.
Damage of the nerves: A long term effect that leads to an impaired loss of sensation in your feet. Damaged nerves might bring pain at first. Since there are no feelings around the feet, even if you get any wound on any of the foot, you would have no idea until you look for a wound. These painless wounds also act as the culprits causing foot ulcers.
Wounded feet: Dryness causes the feet to crack. These cracks will be painful and would bleed at times. Proper care is essential to protect the foot from ulcers.
You can identify a foot ulcer through drainages and any lump that is not painful.
Several components come under two factors that result in diabetic foot ulcers: Causative and Contributive factors.
Peripheral Neuropathy( sensory, motor, autonomic)
Sensory neuropathy is the most important causative factor where the sensation that protects our body from understanding and feeling things will start to lose once we are struck with the disease. Not that all, but we won’t feel the pain and pressure and the movement of our feet. Motor-neuropathy affects all the leg muscles forcing the bones to be out of place. This will force the normal structure of the legs to change and deformity will force misshape that will lead to hammertoe or hallux rigidus. Autonomic neuropathy brings symptoms when the nerves are damaged that shatters the complete body functioning. These include blood pressure, sweating process, heart rate, bowel, and bladder emptying and digestion.
High foot plantar pressure
Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that mediates between the foot and the support point that we use for everyday activities. People with loss of peripheral and motor function disorder are likely to have plantar foot ulcers. Those with foot ulcers are having a high tendency to have this condition.
Emotional distress caused by a shocking accident, rape or similar violence that leaves one in a state of not reacting is called trauma. These memories and thoughts keep taunting them and this condition might be longer at times than expected.
A condition when fat, cholesterol and similar substances are accumulated around the artery walls and restricts the blood to flow in its regular manner to certain parts of the body.
Diabetes 1 and Diabetes 2 are both problematic if not treated properly. People with both types of diabetes are likely to have Foot ulcers and are very dangerous that would force amputation if the risk is higher in certain people.